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PERF 5401 (Grist): 1. Develop A Protocol

This must conduct a Scoping Review. You will find information about Scoping Reviews in the guide.

Inclusion Criteria

Developing a scope review protocol requires you to detail the basis on which sources will be considered for inclusion. These "inclusion criteria" needs to be clearly defined. 

The scoping review's exploratory question ... directs the development of the specific inclusion criteria for the scoping review. - JBI Manual 11.2.4

JBI recommends structuring an exploratory question using the PCC model.  - JBI Manual 11.2.2

  • PCC=  Population, Concept, and Context.

Example of How PCC Question becomes Inclusion/Exclusion Criteria


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Jaimie Beth Colvin
Hughes Center 205C
x 1957

PCC Model


Who is the population of interest or types of participants? sex, age, ethnicity, and other qualifying criteria. 

In some circumstances, participants per se are not a relevant inclusion criterion.


Breast cancer patients

What are you interested in researching? This could be an intervention, outcome, activity, or phenomenon of interest.

Barriers to care

Are you interested in a specific setting (ex: care setting, time frame) or location?

The “Context” element of a scoping review will vary depending on the objective/s and question/s of the review. The context should be clearly defined and may include, but is not limited to, consideration of cultural factors, such as geographic location and/or specific social, cultural, [sex-based interests, or income level.]

In some cases, context may also encompass details about the specific setting (such as acute care, primary health care, or the community). Reviewers may choose to limit the context of their review to a particular country or health system or healthcare setting, depending on the topic and objectives.

JBI Manual 11.2.4

Low-income countries


More examples: 

Questions  Population  Concept Context

What research is available about non-pharmaceutical treatments to treat ADHD?


Non-pharmaceutical treatments


What nurse-led models of care are used to manage chronic disease in high-income countries? 


Nurse-led models of care used to manage chronic disease. 

high-income countries

Identify the needs of stroke survivors as perceived by their caregivers. 

Stroke Survivors

Needs post- stroke 

As perceived by Caregivers