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Types of Academic Dishonesty
Having an awareness of what constitutes “academic fraud” is helpful to everyone. Just in case there is any question about how we define violations of academic integrity, here is a list of the key definitions from the Lipscomb University Academic Integrity page.
- Unauthorized collaboration
- is the act of working with others without the specific permission of the instructor on assignments. In different courses, various kinds of collaboration may be authorized (permitted by the instructor), or unauthorized. Please check with your instructor for specific guidance on whether collaboration is allowed.
- Students may not collaborate on coursework that will be graded unless they have faculty authorization. This rule applies to in class or take home tests, papers, labs, and homework assignments.
- is intentionally using, attempting to use, or providing unauthorized materials, information, study aids, or the ideas or work of another in any academic exercise.
- is the intentional and unauthorized falsification or invention of any information or citation in an academic exercise. Fabrication or alteration of data tends to occur to deliberately mislead. For example, changing data to get better experiment results is academic fraud. Professors in lab classes will often have strict guidelines for the completion of labs and assignments. When in doubt about what might be considered fabrication, consult the professor.
- Multiple submission
- is the use of work previously submitted at this or any other institution to fulfill academic requirements in another class. For example, using a paper from a 12th grade English class for an LU 1103 assignment is academic fraud. Slightly altered work that has been resubmitted is also considered to be fraudulent. With prior permission, some professors may allow students to complete one assignment for two classes. In this case, prior permission from both instructors is necessary.
- False citation
- is falsely citing a source or attributing work to a source from which the referenced material was not obtained. A simple example of this would be footnoting a paragraph and citing a work that was never utilized.
- is intentionally or knowingly representing the words or ideas of another as one’s own in any academic exercise, i.e., using someone else’s ideas or work without proper or complete acknowledgement. Plagiarism encompasses many things, and is by far the most common example of academic fraud. For example, copying a passage straight from a book into a paper without quoting or explicitly citing the source is plagiarism. In addition, completely reworking someone else’s work or ideas and using it as one’s own is also plagiarism. It is very important that students properly acknowledge all ideas, work, and even distinctive wording that are not their own. However, certain information in any discipline is considered "common knowledge" and may be used without acknowledgment. What is considered to be common knowledge varies among fields; when in doubt, consult a professor. Students unsure of how to properly cite a source are encouraged to consult a professor, or a relevant manual of style.
- Internet resources
- are quickly becoming popular materials used in academic research. Many websites provide reliable information; however, others may not provide well documented research. If you rely on Internet resources for your research, be sure to verify the correctness of the information and to use proper citation in your work.
- Facilitating academic dishonesty
- is intentionally or knowingly helping or attempting to help another to violate any provision of the Lipscomb University Judicial Code.